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Jarrow Formulas, Toco-Sorb, Mixed Tocotrienols and Vitamin E, 60 Softgels

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Gamma E 400, 400 mg, 120 Softgels, From Source Naturals

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Gamma E 400, 60 Softgels, 400mg, From Source Natural Gamma e

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Doctor's Best Sytrinol, For Cholesterol Wellness, 60 Softgels, 150mg, From Doctor's Best

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Gamma E Tocopherol / Tocotrienols, 60 Softgels, From Life Extension

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Tocotrienols with Sesame Lignans, 60 Softgels, Life Extension

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Now Foods, Gamma E Complex, Advanced, 120 Softgels

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Garden of Life Perfect Food Super Green Formula, 150 Caplets, From Garden of Life

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Garden of Life, Perfect Food, Super Green Formula, 300 Vegetarian Caplets

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Garden of Life, Perfect Food Super Green Formula, 10.58 oz (300 g)

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Garden of Life, Perfect Food, Super Green Formula, 21.16 oz (600 g)

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New Chapter Super Critical Omega 7, 30 Softgel, From New Chapter

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Sytrinol Cholesterol Support, 150 mg, 120 Softgels, From Nature’s Way

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Paradise Herbs, CoQ10, Q-Veg, 60 Vegetarian Capsules

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Cholesterol Rescue, 60 Tablets, From Source Naturals

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Bio E Gamma Plex, 60 Softgels, From Solaray

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Natural Factors, Mixed Vitamin E, 200 IU, 90 Softgels

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Natural Factors, Mixed Vitamin E, 400 IU, 240 Softgels

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Tocomin Tocotrienol Vitamin E Complete, 60 Softgels, Olympian Labs

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Tocotrienols ?together with tocopherols ?compose the vitamin E family. Natural tocotrienols exist in four different forms or isomers, named alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta- tocotrienol, which contain different number of methyl groups on the chromanol ring. Although all the isomers are important antioxidants due to the ease of donating a hydrogen atom from the hydroxyl group on the chromanol ring to reduce free radicals, each of them has its own biological activity. Furthermore, many studies on test-tube scale indicate that tocotrienols have an anti-cancer effect, especially against skin and breast cancer for the extra three unsaturated bond.

Tocotrienol is a molecular distillate of the oil from palm fruit, providing the most potent and comprehensive tocotrienol complex. Tocotrienols are members of the vitamin E family. Squalene is naturally found in the liver and is a building block for hormones.

Tocotrienol protects cardiovascular function by affecting the biosynthesis of cholesterol (mevalonate pathway) and by reducing the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins. Tocotrienol is rich in delta tocotrienol, a natural HMG-CoA a reductase inhibitor.

Naturally occurring Vitamin E from rice bran oil contains both tocopherols and tocotrienols. Tocotrienols are vitamin E-related compounds found to have antioxidant properties. This antioxidant formula highlights gamma, the most potent tocotrienol. Studies indicate that the effect of combining tocotrienols with tocopherols enhances vitamin E's antioxidant properties.

Tocotrienols are supposed to be more potent in their anti-oxidation and anti-cancer effect compared with the common forms of tocopherol due to the significant differences in the chemical structures. The unsaturated side-chain in tocotrienols makes them penetrate into tissues with saturated fatty layers more efficiently, hence, having stronger antioxidant properties which endow tocotrienols with a potential use in cosmetics.

Natural Tocotrienols

Food sources: Palm oil is the largest natural source of tocotrienols. Other good sources are rice bran oil, and coconut oil. Other food sources include cereal grains, such as barley, oats, and rye.

Tocotrienols can be obtained from natural sources using general procedures, labeled as ‘d-tocotrienols? Tocotrienols concentrates and isomers can be obtained through purification processes. These procedures are intricate and difficult to do on a large scale. However, some companies may have achieved a breakthrough in isolating and purifying natural tocotrienols.

In the peer-reviewed Stroke journal (Oct 2005), oral supplementation of a natural full spectrum palm tocotrienol complex to spontaneously hypertensive rats led to increased tocotrienols level in the brain. The rats supplemented with tocotrienols showed more protection against stroke-induced injury compared to controls (non-supplemented group). This study demonstrated that oral supplementation of the palm tocotrienol complex acts on key molecular checkpoints (c-Src and 12-Lipoxygenase) to protect against glutamate- and stroke-induced neurodegeneration and ultimately may protect against stroke in vivo.

Tocotrienol and Reversal of Arterial Blockage in Carotid Stenosis Patients
Palm tocotrienol complex has been shown in a double-blind placebo controlled human study conducted at the Kenneth Jordan Heart Foundation (NJ,US) to have the ability to reverse arteriosclerosis. Palm tocotrienol complex has the ability to reverse arterial blockage of the carotid artery in Carotid Stenosis patients

Antioxidant Activity
Antioxidants include polyphenols, lipoic acid, carotenoids, and tocotrienols. These 'nutraceuticals' have demonstrated greater antioxidant and anti-cancer activity than what has been achieved previously in nutritional protocols and cosmetics formula. The benefits of tocotrienols reach from decreasing plateletaggregation (clumping of blood) to anti-inflammatory action and anti-cancer activity.

Tocotrienols show considerably superior antioxidant properties compared to dl-a-Tocopherol in clinical and experimental studies due to their better distribution in the fatty layers of the cell membrane. The tocotrienol unsaturated side chain allows for a more efficient penetration into saturated fatty layers of the brain and liver. In addition to the free radical scavenging effect, the antioxidant function of tocotrienols is also associated with lowering tumor formation, DNA damage and cell damage. Studies in animals explored the effects of long-term administration of tocotrienols on liver cancer. Supplementation of tocotrienols in rats induced with a potent liver cancer agent demonstrated that the tocotrienols prolonged the impact of the cancer agent. Cell damage to the liver was significant in the untreated group versus the tocotrienol treated group

Tocotrienols and Breast Cancer
A study showed that tocotrienols are the components of vitamin E responsible for growth inhibition in human breast cancer cells in vitro as well as in vivo through estrogen-independent mechanisms. Tocotrienols can also affect cell homeostasis, possibly independently of their antioxidant activity. Anti-cancer effects of a- and ?-tocotrienol have been reported, although d-tocotrienol was verified to be the most effective tocotrienol in inducing apoptosis (cell death) in estrogen-responsive and estrogen-nonresponsive human breast cancer cells. A daily dose of 30 - 50 mg mixture of a- and ?-tocotrienols can reduce breast cancer risk, and a treatment plan for breast cancer should use higher dosage. Tocotrienols and prostate cancer

Investigation of the antiproliferative effect of tocotrienols in PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells suggests that the transformation of vitamin E to CEHC is mostly a detoxification mechanism, useful to maintain the malignant properties of prostate cancer cells.

Tocotrienols and Cholesterol Reduction
The development of new cholesterol-lowering agents has been given more and more attention by companies due to the strong relationship between cholesterol and atherosclerosis. Tocotrienols, especially d- and ?-tocotrienols, were shown to be effective nutritional agents to treat high cholesterol in recent research programs. In particular, ?-tocotrienol appears to act on a specific enzyme called 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme and suppressed the production of this enzyme, which results in less cholesterol being manufactured by liver cells. The investigation of the cholesterol-lowering effects of tocotrienols in cholesterol-fed rabbits found that the cholesterol in plasma decreased following gamma-tocotrienol treatment (-22%) after 6 weeks. The decrease was mainly attributable to a reduction in LDL cholesterol (23%)

Tocotrienols and Diabetes
Investigation of the intake of antioxidants for its ability to prevent type 2 diabetes shows that vitamin E intake was significantly associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. The relative risk (RR) of type 2 diabetes between the extreme quartiles of the intake was 0.69 (95% CI 0.51-0.94, P for trend=0.003). Intakes of alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, delta-tocopherol, and beta-tocotrienol were inversely related to a risk of type 2 diabetes. Thus the development of type 2 diabetes may be reduced by the intake of antioxidants in the diet.

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